Engineering geology

Major impacts
  • Reliability analysis of rock slopes and rock masses (discontinua)
  • Hazard and risk assessment of landslides
  • Risk management of slopes subject to landslides
Research areas
Related publications

Pathak, S., and Einstein, H.H. (2023). Landslide analysis for Himalayan conditions. International Research Journal of Modernization in Engineering Technology and Science, e-ISSN: 2582-5208, 5 (12), 3189-3198. doi:10.56726/IRJMETS47853

Einstein, H.H., and Baecher, G.B. (2023). Decision making in rock engineering and engineering geology: From site characterization to the observational method. Geostrata, February/March 2023, Engineering Geology and Rock Mechanics.

Costa, A.L., da Conceição Cunha, M., Coelho, P.A.L.F., and Einstein, H.H. (2018). Planning for natural hazards: Robust approach for high-speed rail infrastructure. Natural Hazards Review, 19 (1), February 2018. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)NH.1527-6996.0000277

Li, W., and Einstein, H.H. (2017). Theoretical and numerical investigation of the cavity evolution in gypsum rock. Water Resources Research, 53 (11), 9988–10001. doi:10.1002/2017WR021776

Einstein, H.H., Al Kaabi, M., Chan, M.H. Costa, A., Dudt, J.-P., Haas, C., Indermitte, C., Karam, K., Kollarou, C., Martzer, C., Min, S., Ritter, S., Sousa, R., and Yost, K. (2017). Risk determination for tunnels and other networked infrastructure. In J. Huang, G.A. Fenton, L.Zhang & D. V. Griffiths (Eds.): Geo-Risk 2017: Geotechnical Risk Assessment and Management. Proceedings of Geo-Risk 2017, 6th International Symposium on Geotechnical Risk and Safety, 4-7 June 2017, Denver, Colorado, USA. doi:10.1061/9780784480724.032

Sousa, R.L., Karam, K., Costa, A.L., and Einstein, H.H. (2016). Exploration and decision-making in geotechnical engineering – a case study. 10th anniversary special issue of Georisk, 11 (1), 129-145. doi:10.1080/17499518.2016.1250916

Costa, A.L., da Conceição Cunha, M., Coelho, P.A.L.F., and Einstein, H.H. (2016). Decision support systems for real-world high-speed rail planning. Transportation Engineering, 142 (5). doi:10.1061/(ASCE)TE.1943-5436.0000837

Costa, A.L., Cunha, M.C., Coelho, P.A.L.F., and Einstein, H.H. (2015). Application of the Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Transport Infrastructure Planning. In X.S. Yang, G. Bekdaş, and S.M. Nigdeli (eds.): Metaheuristics and Optimization in Civil Engineering, 235–253. Springer International Publishing, 2015. ISBN: 978-3319262437 (Print) 978-3319262451 (Online) doi:10.1007/978-3-319-26245-1_11

Corominas, J., Einstein, H.H., Davis, T., Strom, A., Zuccaro, G., Nadim, F., and Verdel, T. (2015). Glossary of Terms on Landslide Hazard and Risk. In G. Lollino, D. Giordan,G.B. Crosta, J. Corominas, R. Azzam, J. Wasowski & N. Sciarra (eds): Proceedings of the 12th IAEG Congress on Engineering Geology for Society and Territory, Volume 2, Landslide Processes, pp. 1775-1779. Springer International Publishing. ISBN 978-3319090566 (Print) 978-3319090573 (Online) doi:0.1007/978-3-319-09057-3_314

Sousa, R.L., Karam, K., and Einstein, H.H. (2014). Exploration analysis for landslide risk management. Georisk, 8 (3), 155-170. doi:10.1080/17499518.2014.958174

Fan, L., Powrie, W., Smethurst, J., Peter M. Atkinson, P.M., and Einstein, H.H. (2014). The effect of short ground vegetation on terrestrial laser scans at a local scale. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 95 (23-24), 42-52. doi:10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2014.06.003

Manzella, I., Einstein, H.H., and Grasselli, G. (2013). DEM and FEM/DEM Modelling of Granular Flows to Investigate Large Debris Avalanche Propagation. In C. Margottini, P. Canuti, K. Sassa (eds.): Landslide Science and Practice, Volume 3: Spatial Analysis and Modelling, 247-253. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2015. ISBN: 978-3642313097 (Print) 978-3642313103 (Online) doi:10.1007/978-3-642-31310-3_33

Einstein, H.H., and C. Fairhurst (2013). Engineering issues in sedimentary basin – Geothermal energy. In: Tracking an Energy Elephant – Science and Engineering Challenges for Unlocking the Geothermal Potential of Sedimentary Basins, NSF-SEES Workshop Report, 6-9 November 2011, Salt Lake City, Utah, pp. 20-23. Retrieved from

Einstein, H.H., and Sousa, R.L. (2012). Risk in Slopes. In L. Ribeiro e Sousa, E. Vargas Jr., M.M. Fernandes, R. Azevedo (eds.): Innovative Numerical Modelling in Geomechanics, Chapter 11, 201-210. CRC Press, 2012. ISBN 9780415616614

Manzella, I., Einstein, H.H., and Grasselli, G. (2011). DEM and FEM/DEM Modelling of Granular Flows to Investigate Large Debris Avalanche Propagation. In F. Catani, C. Margottini, A. Trigila & C. Iadanza (eds.): Proceedings of the Second World Landslide Forum: Putting Science to Practice, 3-9 October 2011, Rome, Italy. United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction: Geneva. ISBN: 978-8844805159

Kveldsvik, V., Kaynia, A., Nadim, F., Bhasin, R., Nilsen, B., and Einstein, H.H. (2009). Dynamic distinct-element analysis of the 800 m high Åknes rock slope. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 46 (4), 686-698. doi:10.1016/j.ijrmms.2008.10.007

Kveldsvik, V., Nilsen, B., Einstein, H.H., and Nadim, F. (2008). Alternative approaches for analyses of a 100,000 m3 rock slide based on Barton–Bandis shear strength criterion. Landslides, 5 (2), 161-176. doi:10.1007/s10346-007-0096-x

Einstein, H.H., and Sousa, R.L. (2007). Warning systems for natural threats. Georisk, 1 (1), 3-20. doi:10.1080/17499510601127087

Saldivar-Sali, A., and Einstein, H.H. (2007). A landslide risk rating system for Baguio, Philippines. Engineering Geology, 91 (2-4), 85-99. doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2006.11.006

Einstein, H.H., and Sousa, R. (2006). Warning system for natural threats. In: Proceedings of Geohazards 2006 (F. Nadim, H.H. Einstein, R. Pottler, H. Klapperich, S. Kramer, eds.), 18-21 June 2006, Lillehammer, Norway, pp. 1-38. New York, NY: Engineering Conferences International. Retrieved from

Nadim, F., Einstein, H.H., and Roberds, W. (2005). Probabilistic stability analysis for individual slopes in soil and rock. State of the art paper. In O. Hungr, R. Fell, R. Couture & E. Eberhardt (eds): Proceedings of the International Conference on Landslide Risk Management, 31 May – 3 June 2005, Vancouver, Canada, pp. 63-98. Taylor & Francis Group: London. ISBN 978-0415380430 CRC Press: proceedings

Einstein, H.H. (2005). A systematic approach to natural threats. Keynote lecture. In: Proceedings of the 10th National Convention on Civil Engineering, Engineering Institute of Thailand, 2-4 May 2005, Pattaya, Thailand.

Einstein, H.H. (2003). Uncertainty in rock mechanics and rock engineering – then and now. In: Proceedings of 10th ISRM Congress, 8-12 September, Sandton, South Africa. ISRM-10CONGRESS-2003-048

Einstein, H.H. (2002). Risk assessment and management in geotechnical engineering. Keynote lecture. In: Proceedings of the 8th Portuguese Geotechnical Congress, Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 2237–2262.

Einstein, H.H., and Karam, K. (2001). Risk assessment and uncertainties. Keynote lecture. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Landslides: Causes, Impacts, and Countermeasures (M. Kühne, ed.), 17-21 June 2001, Davos, Switzerland, pp. 457-488 . Balkema, Rotterdam. ISBN 978-3773959690

Einstein (2001). Quantifying uncertain engineering geology information. Invited lecture. In: Proceedings of the 50th Geomechanics Colloquium, October 2001, Zalzburg, Austria. Also in: Felsbau, 19 (5), 72-84. Austrian Society for Geomechanics.

Einstein, H.H. (1997). Landslide risk – Systematic approaches to assessment and management. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Landslide Risk Assessment (D.M. Cruden and R. Fell, eds.), 19-21 February 1997, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, pp. 25-50. CRC Press. ISBN 978-9054109143

Wu, T.H., Tang, W.H., and Einstein, H.H. (1996). Landslide Hazard and Risk Assessment. In A.K. Turner & R.L. Schuster (eds.): Landslides: Investigation and Mitigation, Chapter 6, 106-118. Special Report 247, June 1996, 673 pages, Transportation Research Board. ISBN 978-0309062084 TRB database: SR247S

Kinnicutt, P., Einstein, H.H., and Noack, C. (1996). Three-dimensional stratigraphic characterization for geotechnical exploration. Transportation Research Record, 1526, 183-190. doi:10.1177/0361198196152600124

Kinnicutt, P.G., and Einstein, H.H. (1996). Incorporating uncertainty, objective, and subjective data in geologic site characterization. In: Uncertainty in the Geologic Environment: from Theory to Practice, proceedings of Uncertainty ’96, a specialty conference of the ASCE Geotechnical Engineering Division, July 31-August 3, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Geotechnical Special Publication 58 (C.D. Shackelford et al., eds.), pp. 104-118. Published by the American Society of Civil Engineers, 1996. ISBN 978-0784401880

Einstein, H.H. (1995). Risk and risk analysis in rock engineering. Keynote lecture. In: Proceedings of the Swedish Rock Mechanics Day, Stockholm, Sweden, 1995. Also in: Tunneling and Underground Space Technology, 11 (2), 141-155. doi:10.1016/0886-7798(96)00014-4

Einstein, H.H. (1994). Application of Probabilistic Approaches In Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology. In D. Breysse (ed.): Probabilities and Materials: Tests, Models and Applications, NATO ASI Series, Volume 269, 51-68. Springer Netherlands, 1994. ISBN 978-9401045001 (Print) 978-9401111423 (Online) doi:10.1007/978-94-011-1142-3_8

Einstein, H.H. (1993). What can we do – what can we not do in uncertainty, reliability and risk applied to rock engineering. In: Proceedings of the ISRM International Symposium – EUROCK 93, 21-24 June, Lisboa, Portugal. ISRM-EUROCK-1993-138

Low, B.K., and Einstein, H.H. (1992). Simplified reliability analysis for wedge mechanisms in rock slopes. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Landslides (D. Bell, ed.), 10-14 February 1992, Christchurch, New Zealand, vol. 1, pp. 499-507. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1992. ISBN 9789054100324

Lee, J.-S., and Einstein, H.H. (1992). Topological slope stability analysis using stochastic fracture geometry model. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Fractured and Jointed Rock Masses (N.G.W. Cook, et al., eds.), 3-5 June 1992, Lake Tahoe, California. Balkema, Rotterdam. ISBN 978-9054105916

Einstein, H.H. (1991). Risk in rock engineering. In: Proceedings of the Geotechnical Engineering Congress, 10-12 June 1991, Boulder, Colorado, vol. 1, pp. 608-634. Published by the American Society of Civil Engineers (G. McLean, D.A. Campbell, D.W. Harris, eds.) ISBN 978-0872628069

Einstein, H.H. (1991). Observation, quantification, and judgment: Terzaghi and engineering geology. Geotechnical Engineering, 117 (11), 1772-1778. doi:10.1061/0733-9410(1991)117:11(1772)

Einstein, H.H. (1988). Landslide risk assessment procedure. Keynote lecture. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Landslides (C. Bonnard, ed.), 10-15 July 1988, Lausanne, Switzerland, vol. 2, 1075-1090. Balkema, Rotterdam. ISBN 9061918391 (v. 2)

Einstein, H.H. (1985). Unsicherheit in der Geotechnik. (Uncertainty in geotechnical engineering.) Schweizer Ingenieur und Architekt, 103, 398-404. Retrieved from

Einstein, H.H., Baecher, G.B., and Veneziano, D. (1982). Risk analysis for rock slopes in open pit mines (in 8 parts): Einstein, H H; Baecher, G B; Veneziano, D. US Bureau of Mines reports OFR 46(1-8)-81, Nov 1979, 1954P. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, 19 (3), 67. doi:10.1016/0148-9062(82)91320-1

Einstein, H.H., and Baecher, G.B. (1983). Probabilistic and statistical methods in engineering geology. Specific methods and examples part I: Exploration. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 16 (1), 39-72. doi:10.1007/BF01030217

Einstein, H.H., and Baecher, G.B. (1982). Probabilistic and Statistical Methods in Engineering Geology I. Problem Statement and Introduction to Solution. In L. Müller (ed.): Engineering Geology and Geomechanics as Fundamentals of Rock Engineering, Chapter 4, 47-61. Suppl. volume 12 of the series Rock Mechanics. Springer Vienna, 1982. ISBN 978-3211816974 (Print) 978-3709186657 (Online) doi:10.1007/978-3-7091-8665-7_4

Einstein, H.H., and Baecher, G.B. (1982). Tunneling and Mining Engineering. In R.L. Hunter, C.J. Mann (eds.): Techniques for Determining Probabilities of Geologic Events and Processes, Chapter 3, International Association for Mathematical Geology Studies in Mathematical Geology, No. 4. Oxford University Press, 1982. ISBN: 978-0195074987

Chan, H.C., and Einstein, H.H. (1981). Approach to complete limit equilibrium analysis for rock wedges — the method of “artificial supports”. Rock Mechanics, 14 (2), 59-86. doi:10.1007/BF01239856

Einstein, H.H., Baecher, G.B., Veneziano, D., et al. (1980). Risk Analysis for Rock Slopes in Open Pit Mines. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering. MIT reports prepared for the U.S. Bureau of Mines. Six volumes, MIT series R80-18-R80-23. Executive summary. Part 1 – Distributions of rock mass properties. Part 2 – Limit equilibrium analysis for rock wedge stability. Part 3 – Reliability analysis of rock slope stability. Part 4 – Field exploration to determine rock mass properties. Part 5 – Probabilistic models of jointed rock mass deformation and their implications. Appendices A through M – Detailed geologic data underlying developments. MIT Libraries: 000660195

Glynn, E.F., and Einstein, H.H. (1979). Probability of kinematic instability in rock slopes – a numerical approach. In: Proceedings of the 20th U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), 4-6 June, Austin, Texas. ARMA-79-0317

Baecher, G.B., and Einstein, H. H. (1979). Slope Reliability Models in Pit Optimization. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Application of Computers and Operations Research in the Mineral Industry, American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers, New York, NY, pp. 501-512.

Einstein, H.H., Baecher, G.B., Glynn, E., Dershowitz, W.S., Lanney, N., and Maloney, G. (1978). Risk Analysis for Rock Slopes in Open Pit Mines: Annual Technical Report. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering. MIT report no. R78-7, Volumes I and II, 1978. Prepared for the U.S. Bureau of Mines under Contract no. J0275015. MIT Libraries: 000369020

Einstein, H.H. (1978). Subsurface geology – Petroleum, mining construction. Engineering Geology, 12, 393. doi:10.1016/0013-7952(78)90020-0

Campbell, D.S., Christian, J.T., and Einstein, H.H. (1976). Computerized analysis of rock slope stability. In: Proceedings of a specialty conference on Rock Engineering for Foundations and Slopes, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, August 15-18, 1976. ASCE library