Tunnel analysis and design

Research scope

Contributions to tunnel support design range from the development of the relative stiffness method to advanced finite element (FE) and hybrid boundary element/finite element modeling. The relative stiffness method is one of the most used approaches for preliminary tunnel support design. The most advanced FE approaches include three-dimensional elasto-plastic models, which have been used in a number of practical projects and for systematic investigations of counter-stresses at the face and perimeter of the tunnel. In addition, artificial neural network (ANN) models were developed to predict tunnel performance and surface deformation caused by earth pressure balance machines (EPBM) above tunnels.

Related publications

Iglesia, G.R., and Einstein, H.H. (2015). Closure to “Investigation of Soil Arching with Centrifuge Tests”. Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 141 (7). doi:10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001276

Iglesia, G.R., Einstein, H.H., and Whitman, R.V. (2014). Investigation of Soil Arching with Centrifuge Tests. Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 140 (2). doi:10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000998

Low, B.K., and Einstein, H.H. (2013). Reliability analysis of roof wedges and rockbolt forces in tunnels. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 38, 1-10. doi:10.1016/j.tust.2013.04.006

Bobet, A., and Einstein, H.H. (2011). Tunnel reinforcement with rockbolts. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 26 (1), 100-123. doi:10.1016/j.tust.2010.06.006

Bobet, A., and Einstein, H.H. (2008). Deep tunnels in Clay Shales: Evaluation of key properties for short and long term support. In: Proceedings of GeoCongress 2008, 9-12 March, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. doi:10.1061/40972(311)58

Duzgun, H.S.B., and Einstein, H.H. (2004). Assessment and management of roof fall risks in underground coal mines. Safety Science, 42 (1), 23-41. doi:10.1016/S0925-7535(02)00067-X

Bobet, A., Aristorenas, G., and Einstein, H.H. (1998). Feasibility analysis for a radioactive waste repository tunnel. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 13 (4), 409-426. doi:10.1016/S0886-7798(98)00084-4

Bobet, A., Aristorenas, G., and Einstein, H.H. (1998). Feasibility analysis for a radioactive waste repository tunnel. Tunneling and Underground Space Technology, 13 (4) (1998), pp. 409-426.

Einstein, H.H. (1994). Comments and recommendations on design and analysis procedures for structures in argillaceous swelling rock. International Society for Rock Mechanics Commission on Swelling Rock (H.H. Einstein: coordinator). International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, 31 (5), 535-546. doi:10.1016/0148-9062(94)90155-4

Peterson, C.R., and Einstein (1993). Manufacturing underground space. In: Proceedings of the 1993 NSF Design and Manufacturing Systems Conference, 6-8 January 1993, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. Published by National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C.

Nelson, P.P., Peterson, C.R., Einstein, H.H., and Hood, M. (1992). Manufacturing underground space. In: Proceedings of international congress Towards New Worlds in Tunneling / Hacia Nuevos Mundos en Tuneles (L. Vieitez-Utesa, ed.), vol.1, Acapulco, Mexico, pp. 29-36. Published by CRC Press, 1992. ISBN 978-9054100515

Johnston, J.C., and Einstein, H.H. (1990). A survey of mining associated rockbursts. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Rockbursts and Seismicity in Mines (C. Fairhurst, ed.), Minneapolis, Minnesota, 8-10 June 1988, pp. 121-127. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1990, 439 pages. ISBN 9061911451

Adams, M., Azzouz, A.S., and Einstein, H.H. (1984). Instrumentation and Evaluation of Slurry Wall Construction. Vol. 2. Diaphragm Wall: Case Studies and Application of Finite Element Method. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering. MIT report R86-07, 504 pages, June 1984. Prepared for Federal Highway Administration, Office of Research & Development, Washington, D.C. Final report No. FHWA/RD-84/054. Grant No. DOT-FH-11-9639. MIT Libraries: 000966996

Schwartz, C.W., Azzouz, A.S., and Einstein, H.H. (1983). Closure to “Example Cost Of 3‐D FEM for Underground Openings” by Charles W. Schwartz, Amr S. Azzouz, and Herbert H. Einstein (September, 1982), Geotechnical Engineering, 109 (11), 1499-1500. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1983)109:11(1499)

Einstein, H.H., Thompson, D.E., Azzouz, A.S., O’Reilly, K.P., Schultz, M.S., and Ordun, S. (1983). Comparison of five empirical tunnel classification methods – accuracy, effect of subjectivity and available information. In: Proceedings of the 5th ISRM Congress, 10-15 April, Melbourne, Australia. ISRM-5CONGRESS-1983-107

Einstein, H.H., Azzouz, A.S., McKown, A.F., and Thompson, D.E. (1983). Evaluation of design and performance – Porter Square transit station chamber lining. In: Proceedings of the Rapid Excavation and Tunneling Conference, Chicago, Illinois, 12-16 June 1983. New York: Society of Mining Engineers of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, 1983. OneMine.org library

Schwartz, C.W., Azzouz, A.S., and Einstein, H.H. (1982). Example Cost Of 3‐D FEM for Underground Openings, ASCE Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, 108 (GT9), 1186-1186.

Einstein, H.H., and Baecher, G.B. (1982). Tunneling and Mining Engineering. In R.L. Hunter, C.J. Mann (eds.): Techniques for Determining Probabilities of Geologic Events and Processes, Chapter 3, International Association for Mathematical Geology Studies in Mathematical Geology, No. 4. Oxford University Press, 1982. ISBN: 978-0195074987

Einstein, H.H. (1981). Effects of moisture on ground control in mining and tunneling – Design and construction of tunnels in swelling rock. In: Mini Symposium on Rock Mechanics, 38 pages, 1981. Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers. OneMine.org library

Azzouz, A.S., Einstein, H.H., and Schwartz, C.W. (1981). Three-Dimensional Finite Element Method Analysis for Design of Underground Structures. Monograph No. 18 in The Atlanta Research Chamber: Applied Research for Tunnels (D. Rose, ed.). Prepared for U.S. Department of Transportation. Report No. UMTA-GA-06-0007-81-1, March 1981, 535 pages. TRID database

Ashley, D.B., Veneziano, D., Einstein, H.H., and Chan, M.H.(1981). Geological prediction and updating in tunneling. In: Proceedings of the The 22nd U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), 29 June-2 July, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ARMA-81-0361

Schwartz, C.W., Einstein, H.H., Azzouz, A.S., and Steiner, W. (1980). Improved Design of Tunnel Supports: Final Report. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering. Prepared for U.S. Department of Transportation, Urban Mass Transportation Administration, Office of Rail and Construction Technology, Transportation Systems Center, under Contract no. DOT-TSC-1489. Report no. DOT-OS-60136, DOT/RSPA/DPB-50-79/10, May 1980. MIT Libraries: 000122455

Schwartz, C.W., and Einstein, H.H. (1980). Simplified analysis for ground-structure interaction in tunneling. In: Proceedings of the 21st U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), 27-30 May, Rolla, Missouri. ARMA-80-0787

Steiner, W., and Einstein, H.H. (1979). Empirical Methods in Rock Tunneling – Review and Recommendations. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering. Improved Design of Tunnel Supports: Volume 5, 1979. Prepared for U.S. Department of Transportation, Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA, under Contract no. DOT-TSC-1489.

Steiner, W., Einstein, H.H., and Azzouz, A.S. (1979). Tunneling Practices in Austria and Germany. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering. Improved Design of Tunnel Supports, Volume 4. MIT report no. R79-30, 475 pages, 1979. Prepared for U.S. Department of Transportation, Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA, under Contract no. DOT-TSC-1489. MIT Libraries: 000075935

Schwartz, C.W., and Einstein, H.H. (1979). Simplified Analysis for Ground-Structure Interaction in Tunneling. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering. Improved Design of Tunnel Supports: Volume 1. MIT report no. R79-27, 443 pages, 1979. Prepared for U.S. Department of Transportation, Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA, under Contract no. DOT-TSC-1489. MIT Libraries: 000075890

Schwartz, C.W., Azzouz, A.S., and Einstein, H.H. (1979). Analysis of Yielding in Ground-Structure Interaction. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering. Improved Design of Tunnel Supports: Volume 2. MIT report no. R79-28, 78 pages, 1979. Prepared for U.S. Department of Transportation, Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA, under Contract no. DOT-TSC-1489. MIT Libraries: 000075803

Einstein, H.H., Steiner, W., and Baecher, G.B. (1979). Assessment of empirical design methods for tunnels in rock. In: Proceedings of the 4th Rapid Excavation and Tunneling Conference, Atlanta, Georgia, 18-21 June 1979, v.1, pp. 683-706. New York: Society of Mining Engineers of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, 1979. OneMine.org library

Einstein, H.H., and Schwartz, C.W. (1979). Simplified analysis for tunnel supports. Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, 105 (4), 499-518.

Einstein, H.H., Azzouz, A.S., Schwartz, C.W., and Steiner, W. (1979). Improved Design of Tunnel Supports: Executive Summary. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering. Prepared for U.S. Department of Transportation, Urban Mass Transportation Administration, Office of Rail and Construction Technology, Transportation Systems Center. Report No. UMTA-MA-06-0100-79-15, 49 pages, December 1979.

Einstein, H.H. (1979). Tunneling in swelling rock. Underground Space, 4, 51-61.

Azzouz, A.S., Schwartz, C.W., and Einstein, H.H. (1979). Finite Element Analysis of the Peachtree Center Station in Atlanta. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering. Improved Design of Tunnel Supports, Volume 3. MIT report no. R79-29, 110 pages, 1979. Prepared for U.S. Department of Transportation, Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA, under Contract no. DOT-TSC-1489. MIT Libraries: 000076147

Ashley, D.B., Tse, E.C., and Einstein, H.H. (1979). Advantages and limitations of adaptable tunnel design-construction methods. In: Proceedings of the 4th Rapid Excavation and Tunneling Conference, Atlanta, Georgia, 18-21 June 1979, v.2, pp. 989-1011. New York: Society of Mining Engineers of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, 1979. OneMine.org library

Einstein, H.H., and Schwartz, C.W. (1978). Improvement of ground-support performance by full consideration of ground displacements. Transportation Research Record, 684, 14-20. Retrieved from https://trid.trb.org/view.aspx?id=91837

Einstein, H.H. (1977). Observational methods in tunnel design and construction. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference on D.O.T. Research and Development in Tunneling Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, October 6-7, 1977.