Swelling rocks in tunnels

Research scope

Swelling of clay bearing, sulfate, and clay-sulfate rocks causes major problems in tunnels through large and long lasting deformation. This area has been studied through sophisticated experimentation and related analytical modeling, based on which now it is possible to make reasonable predictions of tunnel deformations. Also, research efforts on swelling rocks have started in the context of radioactive waste disposal.

Related publications

Butscher, C., Einstein, H.H., and Huggenberger, P. (2015). Darcy flux as hydrological indicator for the swelling potential of clay-sulfate rocks in tunnelling. Engineering Geology, 197, 11-19. doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2015.08.007

Butscher, C., Huggenberger, P., Zechner, E., and Einstein, H.H. (2011). Relation between hydrogeological setting and swelling potential of clay-sulfate rocks in tunneling. Engineering Geology, 122 (3-4), 204-214. doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2011.05.009

Butscher, C., Einstein, H.H., and Huggenberger, P. (2011). Effects of tunneling on groundwater flow and swelling of clay-sulfate rocks. Water Resources Research, 47 (11), W11520. doi:10.1029/2011WR011023

Bobet, A., and Einstein, H.H. (2008). Deep tunnels in Clay Shales: Evaluation of key properties for short and long term support. In: Proceedings of GeoCongress 2008, 9-12 March, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. doi:10.1061/40972(311)58

Einstein, H.H. (2000). Tunnels in Opalinus Clayshale — A review of case histories and new developments. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 15 (1), 13-29. doi:10.1016/S0886-7798(00)00025-0

Einstein, H.H. (1999). Tunnels in opalinus clayshale – case histories and new developments. In: Proceedings of the 37th U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), 7-9 June, Vail, Colorado. ARMA-99-0049

Bobet, A., Aristorenas, G., and Einstein, H.H. (1998). Feasibility analysis for a radioactive waste repository tunnel. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 13 (4), 409-426. doi:10.1016/S0886-7798(98)00084-4

Bobet, A., Aristorenas, G., and Einstein, H.H. (1998). Feasibility analysis for a radioactive waste repository tunnel. Tunneling and Underground Space Technology, 13 (4) (1998), pp. 409-426.

Bobet, A., and Einstein, H.H. (1997). Mechanized tunneling in squeezing ground – From basic thoughts to continuous tunneling. In Tunnels for people: proceedings of World Tunnel Congress ’97 (J. Golser, W.H., Hinkel, W. Schubert, eds.), 23rd General Assembly of the International Tunneling Association, 12-17 April 1997, Vienna, Austria, pp. 619-632. Balkema, Rotterdam. ISBN 9789054108689

Einstein, H.H. (1996). Tunnelling in difficult ground — Swelling behaviour and identification of swelling rocks. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 29 (3), 113-124. doi:10.1007/BF01032649

Einstein, H.H. (1994). Comments and recommendations on design and analysis procedures for structures in argillaceous swelling rock. International Society for Rock Mechanics Commission on Swelling Rock (H.H. Einstein: coordinator). International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, 31 (5), 535-546. doi:10.1016/0148-9062(94)90155-4

Einstein, H.H. (1994). Suggested methods for rapid field identification of swelling and slaking rocks. International Society for Rock Mechanics Commission on Swelling Rock (H.H. Einstein: coordinator). International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, 31 (5), 547-550. doi:10.1016/0148-9062(94)90156-2

Einstein, H.H. (1989). Suggested methods for laboratory testing of argillaceous swelling rocks. International Society for Rock Mechanics commission on swelling rock and working group on swelling rock of the commission on testing methods (H.H. Einstein: chairman of the commission). International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, 26 (5), 415-426. doi:10.1016/0148-9062(89)90937-6

Bellwald, P., Einstein, H. H. (1987). Elasto-plastic constitutive model. In: Proceedings of Workshop on Swelling Rock, Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Rock Mechanics, Montreal, Canada. Balkema, Rotterdam, 3:1489–1492.

Einstein, H.H. (1984). Design and construction of tunnels in swelling rock. AIME/SME Transactions. American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers. Retrieved from http://www.onemine.org/document/abstract.cfm?docid=7964

Einstein, H.H. (1983). Characterization of Swelling Rock. Report of the International Society for Rock Mechanics Commission on Swelling Rock (H.H. Einstein: Chairman of the Commission). ISRM reports

Einstein, H.H. (1981). Effects of moisture on ground control in mining and tunneling – Design and construction of tunnels in swelling rock. In: Mini Symposium on Rock Mechanics, 38 pages, 1981. Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers. OneMine.org library

Einstein, H.H. (1979). Tunneling in swelling rock. Underground Space, 4, 51-61.

Einstein, H.H., and Bischoff, N. (1976). Dimensionnement de tunnels en roche gonflante. (Design of tunnels in swelling rock.) Tunnels et Ouvrages Souterrains, 15, 109-119, 1976. Authorized translation of paper given at the 16th U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics.

Einstein, H.H., and Bischoff, N. (1975). Design of tunnels in swelling rock. In: Proceedings of the 16th U.S Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), 22-24 September, Minneapolis, Minnesota. ARMA-75-185

Einstein, H.H., Bischoff, N., and Hofmann, E. (1972). Verhalten von Stollensohlen in quellendem Mergel (Behavior of invert slabs in swelling shale). In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Underground Openings (Grob, H., Kovári, K., eds.), September 1972, Lucerne, Switzerland, pp. 296–319. Published by the Swiss Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Zurich, Switzerland.