Individual joints

Research scope

The characterization and representation of individual fractures (joints) – an essential component of jointed rock mass characterization and representation – range from geometrical to mechanical and hydraulic aspects. Hence, the geometry (“roughness”), the shear behavior regarding both deformability and resistance, and the hydraulic behavior of individual fractures have been studied. Specific research topics on individual fractures have covered experiments and models of surface geometry and aperture, experiments and models of shearing behavior, and – most recently – flow investigation, which combines geometric, mechanical and hydraulic aspects.

Related Publications
Shear behavior of individual joints

Brooks, Z., Ulm, F.-J., and Einstein (2012). Role of microstructure size in fracture process zone development of marble. In: Proceedings of the 46th U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, 24-27 June, Chicago, Illinois. ARMA-2012-421

Iwano, M., and Einstein, H.H. (1993). Stochastic analysis of surface roughness, aperture and flow in a single fracture. In: Proceedings of the ISRM International Symposium – EUROCK 93, 21-24 June, Lisboa, Portugal. ISRM-EUROCK-1993-018

Roberds, W.J., Iwano, M., and Einstein, H.H. (1990). Probabilistic mapping of rock joint surfaces. In Rock Joints: proceedings of the International Symposium on Rock Joints (W. Barton, E. Stephansson, eds.), Loen, Norway, 4-6 June 1990, pp. 681-691. Balkema, Rotterdam, 814 pages. ISBN 9061911095

Einstein, H.H., et al. (1986). Rock Mass Persistence: Final Technical Report and Executive Summary. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering. MIT report, 95 pages, February 1986. Prepared for U.S. Army Research Office, Grant no. DAAG-29-83-K-0016. MIT Libraries: 000713272

Einstein, H.H., and Dowding, C.H. (1981). Shearing Resistance and Deformability of Rock Discontinuities. In Y.S. Touloukian, C.Y. Ho (eds.): Physical Properties of Rocks and Minerals, McGraw-Hill / CINDAS Data Series on Material Properties, Chapter 7, 177–219, 1981. ISBN: 978-0070650329

Chan, H.C., and Einstein, H.H. (1981). Approach to complete limit equilibrium analysis for rock wedges — the method of “artificial supports”. Rock Mechanics, 14 (2), 59-86. doi:10.1007/BF01239856

Roberds, W.J., and Einstein, H.H. (1979). Numerical modelling of rock joints. In: Proceedings of the 20th U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), 4-6 June, Austin, Texas. ARMA-79-0233

Roberds, W.J., and Einstein, H.H. (1978). Comprehensive model for rock discontinuities. ASCE Journal of the Geotechnical Division, 104 (5), 553-569.

Roberds, W.J., and Einstein, H.H. (1977). A General Purpose Elasto-Visco-Plastic Critical State Behavioral Model. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering. MIT report R77-8, 225 pages, March 1977. Prepared for the National Science Foundation. Grant No. ENG 75-19112. MIT Libraries: 000045427

Hydraulic behavior of individual joints

Villamor Lora, R., Li, B., and Einstein, H.H. (2019). A methodology to measure fracture aperture using a consumer grade digital camera. In: Proceedings of the 53rd U.S. Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium, 23-26 June, New York City, NY. ARMA-2019-1809

Li, W., Einstein, H.H., and Germaine, J.T. (2019). An experimental study of matrix dissolution and wormhole formations using gypsum core flood tests. Part II: Reaction kinetics and modelling. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 124. doi:10.1029/2019JB018092

Li, W., Einstein, H.H., and Germaine, J.T. (2019). An experimental study of matrix dissolution and wormhole formations using gypsum core flood tests. Part I: Permeability evolution and 3D wormhole reconstruction. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 124. doi:10.1029/2018JB017238

Li, W., Einstein, H.H., and Germaine, J.T. (2019). Geometric and fractal analysis on the complex wormholes resulting from gypsum core flood tests. In: Proceedings of the 53rd U.S. Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium, 23-26 June, New York City, NY. ARMA-2019-1957

Kang, H., Germaine, J.T., and Einstein, H.H. (2019). Creep behavior of Musandam Limestone fractures under confining pressures less than 1 MPa. In: Proceedings of the 53rd U.S. Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium, 23-26 June, New York City, NY. ARMA-2019-1691

Villamor Lora, R., and Einstein, H.H. (2018). Fracture flow tests and aperture measurements. Poster presented at 2018 AGU Fall Meeting, the Centennial Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, 10-14 December, Washington, DC.

Li, W., Opolot, M., Sousa, R.L., and Einstein, H.H. (2018). Transport-controlled dissolution in underground cavities: an experimental validation of the extended Graetz solution. In: Proceedings of the 52nd U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, 17-20 June, Seattle, Washington. ARMA-2018-825

Li, W., Einstein, H.H., and Germaine, J.T. (2018). An experimental study of wormhole formations using gypsum core flood tests. Poster presented at MIT Water Night 2018, 22 March, Cambridge, MA.

Kang, H., Einstein, H.H., and Germaine, J.T. (2018). Hydro-mechanical behavior of Musandam Limestone fracture under confining pressure less than 1MPa. Poster presented at 2018 AGU Fall Meeting, the Centennial Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, 10-14 December, Washington, DC.

Li, W., Opolot, M., Sousa, R., and Einstein, H.H. (2015). Reactive transport in a pipe of soluble rock; a theoretical and experimental study. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, 14-18 December, 2015.

Iwano, M., and Einstein, H.H. (1995). Laboratory experiments on geometric and hydromechanical characteristics of three different fractures in granodiorite. In: Proceedings of the 8th ISRM Congress, 25-29 September, Tokyo, Japan. ISRM-8CONGRESS-1995-151

Kafritsas, J., and Einstein, H.H. (1987). Coupled flow/deformation analysis of a dam foundation with the distinct element method. In: Proceedings of the 28th U.S. symposium on rock mechanics (USRMS), 29 June-1 July, Tucson, Arizona. ARMA-87-0481

Dershowtiz, W.S., and Einstein, H.H. (1987). Three-dimensional flow modeling in jointed rock masses. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Congress of the International Society for Rock Mechanics, 30 August-3 September, Montreal, Canada. ISRM-6CONGRESS-1987-016

Kafritsas, J., and Einstein, H.H. (1984). Coupled deformation/flow analysis with the distinct element method. In: Proceedings of the 25th U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), 25-27 June, Evanston, Illinois. ARMA-84-0239